Selected Portions of Intelligence: Official Journal of the APA] Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena.
In factor analysis, related variables are tested for correlation to each other, then the correlation of the related items are evaluated to find clusters or groups of the variables. With this data, Spearman concluded that there must be one central factor that influences our cognitive abilities.
Spearman termed this general intelligence g. Other than Charles Spearmanthree others developed a hypothesis regarding the structure of intelligence. Thurstone tested subjects on 56 different abilities; from his data he established seven primary mental abilities relating to intelligence.
He categorized them as: Other researchers, interested in this new research study, analyzed Thurstone's data, discovering that those that scored high in one category often did well in the others.
Howard Gardner suggested in his theory of multiple intelligences that intelligence is formed out of multiple abilities. He recognized eight intelligences: He also considered the possibility of a ninth intelligent ability, existential intelligence.
Instead, his results showed that each of his eight intelligences correlate positively with each other. After further analysis, Gardner found that logic, spatial abilities, language, and mathematics are all linked in some way, giving support for an underlying g factor that is prominent in almost all intelligence in general.
He classified analytical intelligence as problem-solving skills in tests and academics. Creative intelligence is considered how people react adaptively in new situations, or create novel ideas.
Practical intelligence is defined as the everyday logic used when multiple solutions or decisions are possible. The data resembled what the other psychologists had found. All three mental abilities correlated highly with one another, and evidence that one basic factor, gwas the primary influence.
In Godfrey Thomson wrote a paper criticizing Spearman's g: The object of this paper is to show that the cases brought forward by Professor Spearman in favor of the existence of General Ability are by no means "crucial. The essential point about Professor Spearman's hypothesis is the existence of this General Factor.
Both he and his opponents are agreed that there are Specific Factors peculiar to individual tests, both he and his opponents agree that there are Group Factors which run through some but not all tests.
The difference between them is that Professor Spearman says there is a further single factor which runs through all tests, and that by pooling a few tests the Group Factors can soon be eliminated and a point reached where all the correlations are due to the General Factor alone.
Spearman first researched in an experiment with 24 children from a small village school measuring three intellectual measures, based on teachers rankings, to address intellectual and sensory as the two different sets of measure: Spearman proposed that intellectual and sensory measure be combined as assessment of general intelligence.
The general intelligence, g, influences the performance on all mental tasks, while another component influences abilities on a particular task.
This second factor he named s, for specific ability. In the middle of the overlapping circles, would be g, which influences all the specific intelligences, while s is represented by the four circles. Though the specific number of s factors are unknown, a few have been relatively accepted: He claimed that g was not made up of one single ability, but rather two genetically influenced, unique abilities working together.
He called these abilities "eductive" and "reproductive". He suggested that future understanding of the interaction between these two different abilities would drastically change how individual differences and cognition are understood in psychology, possibly creating the basis for wisdom.
Although not all of the studies are currently using Spearman's exact model for intelligence testing, they are adding some modern concepts to that study. Spearman described that there was a functional relationship between intelligence and Sensory Discriminatory Abilities. Intelligence testing measuring the g factor has been studied recently to re-explore Spearman's law of diminishing returns.
Modern psychology[ edit ] This theory is still greatly present in today's modern psychology. Researchers are examining this theory and recreating it in modern research.Intelligence involves some different mental abilities including logic, reasoning, problem-solving, and planning. While the subject of intelligence is one of the largest and most heavily researched, it is also one of the topics that generates the greatest controversy.
Home // Monitor on Psychology // February Monitor on Psychology // Intelligent intelligence testing. EMAIL; PRINT; Cover Story. Intelligent intelligence testing. Psychologists are broadening the concept of intelligence and how to test it. These very different theories have one thing in common: the assumption that traditional theories.
intelligence quotient: A score derived from one of several different standardized tests attempting to measure intelligence. g: Short for general intelligence; a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks.
The history of the race and intelligence controversy concerns the historical beginning of IQ testing around the time of World War I there have been observed differences between average scores of different population groups, but there has been no agreement about whether this is mainly due to environmental and cultural factors, or mainly due.
Intelligence has been defined in many ways to include the capacity for logic, a given person's intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria.
Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been. With so many differences in intelligence amidst social and racial classes, many have condemned intelligence testing, calling it "ideologically motivated" (The IQ Controversy, ).